Male partner smoking on ivf cycles
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- Lifestyle and Fertility
- Public funding and eligibility
- Delivery rates in IVF are affected by the age of the male partner
- No IVF on the NHS if your husband smokes
- Marijuana may undermine fertility treatment success
- What Impact Does Male Smoking Have on Sperm and Fertility?
- Male Infertility FAQ
- Public funding and eligibility
Lifestyle and Fertility
The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men.
The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body and has been found to impair natural and assisted fecundity [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. However, some studies have reported smoking in women had no detrimental effect on fertilization and IVF pregnancy rates [ 3 , 9 , 10 ]. In male smokers, smoking has been demonstrated to result in reduction in multiple sperm parameters has been demonstrated [ 3 , 11 , 12 , 13 ] but other studies found smoking to have no harmful effects on fertility [ 14 , 15 ].
Male smoking status was not found to affect pregnancy rates in IVF cycles [ 3 ] and a recent report also demonstrated that smoking, as measured by seminal plasma cotinine, was not associated with detrimental effects on IVF outcomes [ 16 ]. Overall, the effects of smoking on assisted conception have not been securely established, and many conflicting results have been reported.
However, self-reported smoking has been suggested to be an unreliable metric [ 18 , 19 ]. Female smokers may experience considerable social and medical pressure to quit smoking and it is especially likely for women who smoke not to report their smoking status accurately. Thus, a more objective method for assessing smoking status determination is necessary. Several such metrics have been validated, of which the measurement of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, is the most widely used [ 20 ].
No previous reports have evaluated the prevalence of smoking in infertile couples in Korea and its effect on the outcomes of infertility treatment.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and to determine whether smoking, as measured by cotinine positivity, affected infertility treatment outcomes.
In the present study, qualitative urinary cotinine test was used as an objective measurement of smoking status, regardless of self-reported past, current or passive smoking. A qualitative urinary cotinine test positive or negative was performed with a commercial kit Nico-Find; Humasis, Anyang, Korea on the day of oocyte retrieval or on the day of IUI.
Only one IVF or IUI cycle per couple was included and the clinical outcomes of each couple were prospectively followed. Pituitary suppression was performed using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist Decapeptyl 0.
Ovulation was triggered by recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin hCG Ovidrel, Serono when either the leading follicle reached a mean diameter of 18 mm or two or more follicles reached a diameter of 17 mm.
Oocytes were retrieved under transvaginal ultrasound guidance 34 to 36 hours after the administration of recombinant hCG. Other IVF procedures were performed as described elsewhere [ 21 ]. After fertilization, all embryos were evaluated for cell number, degree of fragmentation, and cell size. Three days after oocyte retrieval, embryos were classified from grade A to D with grade A embryos considered to be high-quality.
The embryos were selected for transfer using standard laboratory procedures, according to embryo morphology on day 3 or blastocyst morphology on day 5. Blastocysts were evaluated based on the number of evenly sized cells, the amount of visible inner cell mass and the presence of a continuous trophectoderm with sufficient cells.
Up to three embryos were transferred 3 days after oocyte retrieval or up to two blastocysts were transferred 5 days after oocyte retrieval. The luteal phase was supported with 50 mg of intramuscular progesterone in oil Progesterone, Genefer, Seoul, Korea daily, starting on the day of oocyte retrieval.
If an intrauterine pregnancy was identified, progesterone was continued for another 5 weeks. The IUI was performed according to previously published methods [ 22 ]. Sperm morphology was assessed using strict criteria. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS ver. The chi-square test was used to compare frequencies but Fisher's exact test was applied if the expected cell number was less than five.
The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare mean values between two groups, while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare mean values among three groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the extent to which the smoking status of one partner in a couple was correlated that of the other partner.
The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was much higher in male participants The highest prevalence was observed in men between 40 and 50 years of age and women between 20 and 30 years of age.
Positive urinary cotinine tests in both male and female partners were observed in 7. Table 3 presents semen characteristics according to urinary cotinine positivity in all male participants. With the exception of sperm count, no semen parameters showed significant variance according to cotinine-positivity. Among the female participants, cotinine-positive participants was younger than cotinine-negative women mean age, The number of oocytes retrieved was also similar 8.
Cycles with no mature oocyte were absent in cotinine-positive women but such cycles were noted in two cotinine-negative women data not shown. In 92 IVF cycles, a negative urinary cotinine test in both partners was observed in 49 couples.
A positive test in the male partner but a negative test in the female partner was observed in 34 couples. In nine couples, both partners had positive urinary cotinine tests.
No couples were observed in which the male partner had a negative result and the female partner had a positive result. In Table 4 , IVF outcomes according to cotinine test results are presented and no parameters were found to vary significantly depending on cotinine co-positivity status.
No parameters were significantly different among the three groups. In 35 IUI cycles, both partners had a negative urinary cotinine test in 20 couples, and 11 male-positive couples were identified Table 5. Male-negative and female-positive results were observed in three couples and in one couple, both partners were positive.
NS, not significant; rFSH, recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone. In the present study, the prevalence of positive urinary test was Smoking rates still appear to be relatively high despite recent campaigns to reduce smoking in Korea. Since cigarette smoke contains well-known harmful substances, concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effects of smoking on male fertility [ 25 ].
Although several studies have reported a modest reduction in the semen parameters of smokers compared to non-smokers, other studies have not demonstrated a reduction in male fertility associated with smoking [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ]. Similarly, this study found no significant differences in sperm characteristics depending on the results of urinary cotinine test, and the concentration of sperm was in fact higher in cotinine-positive men than in cotininemen.
The reasons for considerable discrepancies that exist among studies are still unclear, although several methodological issues can be suggested. Regarding the determination of sperm quality, considerable variation might exist among different laboratories despite newly changed World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics [ 33 ]. Additionally, sperm quality can be affected by local environmental elements, including stress, the amount of nicotine in the tobacco that is consumed, and other life-style factors.
Additionally, men with erectile dysfunction which is associated with smoking might refuse to participate in such studies and this potential selection bias could affect the results of the studies. In the present study, we did not find any significant negative effects of cigarette smoking, as documented by urinary cotinine on IVF outcomes, which partially corresponds to the findings of a recent report by Cinar et al.
The fact that assisted reproduction technology ART allows the opportunity to select high-quality embryos [ 10 ] may explain why the outcomes of fertility treatment were similar in smokers and non-smokers. Additionally, the number of retrieved oocytes and serum levels of ovarian reserve markers were similar among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative women indicating that the presence of cotinine was not associated with diminished ovarian reserve. In the present study, the rate of cotinine positivity was significantly higher in women younger than 30 years of age, and the detrimental effect of smoking might have been counteracted by the higher fertility of the younger participants.
This is partially in accordance with reports that have found that the harmful effect of smoking are more distinct in elderly women undergoing ART treatment [ 2 , 14 , 34 , 35 ]. Moreover, the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine has also stated that the effects of smoking and old age might have a synergistic effect on the acceleration of oocyte depletion [ 36 ].
Therefore, stratification according to age groups is needed in further studies with larger study populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the association between objectively determined smoking status and the outcomes of fertility treatment in Korean population. Moreover, a major strength of the present study is that urinary cotinine co-positivity in couple was assessed. Urinary cotinine was used as an objective indicator of smoking and the participants were not asked whether they smoked.
In a previous study performed in Korean population, the self-reported prevalence of smoking in men was Therefore, self-reported smoking status may not agree with tests of biomarkers of tobacco use, and this discrepancy may be larger in women because female smokers are still stigmatized in Asian societies. In this study, qualitative urinary cotinine results positive or negative were used to objectively assess participants' smoking status meaning that it was not possible to evaluate the relationship urinary cotinine levels with smoking frequency, semen parameters, ovarian reserve, and the outcomes of ART treatment.
Cotinine is easily detectable in body fluids and is widely accepted as a biomarker of cigarette smoke exposure due to its specificity and relatively long half-life in the body 16 hours compared to nicotine 2 hours [ 40 ].
Since the half-life of cotinine is approximately 16 hours [ 40 ], a heavy smoker who abstains from tobacco for several days may demonstrate an undetectable urinary cotinine level, leading to an inappropriate classification as cotinine-negative.
Furthermore, less intense and less frequent smokers can demonstrate urinary cotinine-negativity; therefore, a highly sensitive test is needed to minimize the misclassification of true smokers as nonsmokers. This study had some limitations. First, only urinary cotinine was measured as a biomarker for smoking in the present study.
In addition to cotinine, other alkaloids including anabasine and nornicotine can be used as unique markers for smoking, however, these markers do not reflect passive exposure to smoking.
Moreover, cotinine has been validated as a monitoring tool for smoking in numerous studies [ 19 , 20 , 43 ]. Second, this study included a relatively small number of participants undergoing ART.
The small study population may have decreased the power of the study, meaning that the findings of the present study may have been due to chance and should be interpreted with caution. Thus, a much larger study population with age stratification may be required to achieve sufficient statistical power to adequately assess the relationship between smoking and ART outcomes. Finally, light smokers may have been inappropriately classified in the present study because the concentration of urinary cotinine in light smokers or moderate passive smokers has been reported to be lower than the threshold used in the present study [ 41 ].
Also, urinary cotinine test may demonstrate positive results in nicotine patch or gum users and may not reflect past smoking history. In general, due to these considerations, urinary cotinine test is used only for screening test in healthcare examination, not for medical purposes. Gas chromatography is the preferable quantitative assay for cotinine, and a questionnaire could potentially be considered as an alternative to urinary cotinine test. However, questionnaires are not objective and it is unlikely that all study participants would have answered the questionnaire honestly.
Urinary cotinine tests were therefore used in the present study despite the fact that positive urinary cotinine test do not correlate perfectly with smoking. In conclusion, positive urinary cotinine test was not associated with negative impact on infertility treatment outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed with larger populations in order to elucidate the association between smoking and infertility.
This work was supported by a grant no. Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Read article at publisher's site DOI : Hum Reprod , 33 6 , 01 Jun
Public funding and eligibility
Metrics details. Lifestyle factors including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and nutritional habits impact on health, wellness, and the risk of chronic diseases. In the areas of in-vitro fertilization IVF and pregnancy, lifestyle factors influence oocyte production, fertilization rates, pregnancy and pregnancy loss, while chronic, low-grade oxidative stress may underlie poor outcomes for some IVF cases.
For this reason it may be harder and take some couples longer to conceive where one or both partners smoke. If a woman smokes, it can have affects at each stage of the reproductive process, including egg maturation, hormone production, embryo transport and the environment in the uterus. Women who smoke are also more likely to go through menopause at a younger age. For men who smoke, sperm quality and numbers can be adversely affected. In the longer term, smoking damages blood vessels, making it more likely for men to develop erectile problems and sexual dysfunction.
Delivery rates in IVF are affected by the age of the male partner
Many health problems—from kidney disease to testicular cancer—can result in male infertility for our San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento patients. Diseases passed through sex can lead to blocks and scars in the reproductive tract. Many illnesses can cause infertility. Research shows that routine smoking affects sperm in many ways. It causes sperm cells to be smaller and slower. It harms their DNA. Smoking can also affect the seminal fluid ejaculated with sperm. Not necessarily.
No IVF on the NHS if your husband smokes
Men, unlike women, do not have a menopause or a predictable and detectable decline in their fertility. Female age is thus the dominant factor in predicting or explaining a couple's chance of conception, whether natural or assisted. A few studies have found that the chance of natural conception can be affected by the age of the male partner, particularly in the genetic health of sperm cells, but the celebrity examples of Charlie Chaplin or Luciano Pavarotti have kept alive the notion that male fertility goes on forever. Now, a new study from the USA in IVF couples shows quite clearly that live birth outcome is clearly affected by the age of the male partner and that in certain younger female age groups, where the effect of age is less potent, the chances of live birth can be appreciably reduced by the man's increasing age. The study was an analysis of all IVF cycles performed at a large IVF centre in the Boston region between and , a total of almost 19, cycles performed in couples.
Smoking can also increase the risks of heart and lung disease, and cause premature aging of the skin. However, what is not as widely recognized is that smoking also has a marked adverse effect on reproduction. Multiple research studies show smoking decreases natural fertility. The average time to successfully conceive naturally increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day.
Marijuana may undermine fertility treatment success
Fertility requires the sperm and eggs to be very healthy. Let's look at factors which can influence the health of eggs and sperm. Some factors can be modified by changing behaviors; others can't. Unfortunately as men and women age, both the sperm and the eggs are less able to form an embryo that can implant and form a normal offspring.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Sperm Count - Nucleus Health
By Stephen Adams , Medical Correspondent. It has been common practice for years for health authorities that pay the bills for NHS patients, to insist that women seeking IVF treatment are not smokers. There is clear evidence that smoking both reduces the chances of a successful implantation and harms the developing baby. But now primary care trusts PCTs are raising the bar, despite there being limited evidence that smoking before conception leads to seriously damaged sperm. He said: "I can understand why the NHS is bringing in this policy, but what must be hard for couples is seeing the man in the street who smokes 50 fags a day, and has six kids.
What Impact Does Male Smoking Have on Sperm and Fertility?
Dallas IVF knows that patients who make healthy lifestyle choices have greater pregnancy success rates and healthier babies. This is true for men and women who avoid tobacco, as the physicians at our Dallas fertility clinic see a clear link between smoking and infertility. Smoking and infertility go hand in hand. The physicians at our Dallas fertility clinic can cite numerous studies and real-life examples of smoking causing fertility problems. In fact, infertility rates among smokers are double for both men and women, and this number corresponds directly to how many cigarettes a patient smokes each day. Men who smoke can experience erectile dysfunction, a lower sperm count and an increased number of abnormal sperm. Women experience even more fertility-related issues.
Male Infertility FAQ
Can smoking hurt your sperm? It can also negatively affect your fertility. You already know that smoking is bad for your health , and you have likely guessed that smoking is bad for female fertility. In both men and women, smoking has been linked to an increased risk for many cancers, heart disease, emphysema, and a number of other health problems.
Public funding and eligibility
The objective of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the influence of cigarette smoking by the wife, husband, and couple at various time points e. Couples i. Women who smoked in their lifetime had adjusted risks of 2. This study may also provide insight into the timing and effects of male and female smoking on natural reproduction.
Его массивная шея зажала ей рот, и Росио чуть не задохнулась. Боже, поскорей бы все это закончилось, взмолилась она про. - Si. Si! - вскрикивала она в интервалах между его рывками и впивалась ногтями ему в спину, стараясь ускорить его движения. Все смешалось в ее голове - лица бесчисленных мужчин, склонявшиеся над ней, потолки гостиничных номеров, в которые она смотрела, мечты о том, что когда-нибудь все это кончится и она заведет детей… Внезапно, без всякого предупреждения, тело немца выгнулось, замерло и тут же рухнуло на .
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Чатрукьян знал: как только Джабба узнает, что Стратмор обошел фильтры, разразится скандал.
Нуматака чуть не расхохотался, но в голосе звонившего слышалась подозрительная решимость. - Если Танкадо перестанет быть фактором? - вслух размышлял Нуматака.
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